Stages of innovation
The main stages of innovation
The essence of innovation is manifested in the implementation of certain economic relations that take shape between business entities in the process of improving the technical and economic basis of production processes. The ultimate purpose of innovation is to meet production and personal needs associated with changed or new goods and services. In this regard, innovation is becoming an important component of any economic system. The modern economy of Russia also does not do without innovation.
In the socio-economic aspect, innovation is a resource, a factor of economic growth, which modifies the economy, saturating it with differentiated types of products, increases the capacity of both the domestic and international markets and, ultimately, helps to meet the growing needs of the industrial sector and the population.
According to the form of ownership, innovations in modern economic structures are divided into private, state and mixed in the interaction of private and state property. In this regard, innovations come down to two types: profitable (commercial) and non-profit (non-profit), for example, private innovations in the sectors of civil production or state innovations in military production. The modern economy of Russia also does not do without innovation.
The role of innovations in a market economy is usually determined from the standpoint of their influence on aggregate demand and aggregate supply. At the same time, the costs associated with innovation are classified from two perspectives. On the one hand, innovation reduces aggregate demand. In this case, the costs of innovation appear as negative consumption. On the other hand, innovation expenditures act as positive consumption, contributing to the growth of aggregate supply and aggregate demand. This occurs when new goods and services appear on the market, i.e., when they are mass consumed. The modern economy of Russia also does not do without innovation.
The following innovations are distinguished by the stages of scientific and technical progress:
technical, used in the manufacture of products with new or improved properties;
technological, used to improve the methods of manufacturing products;
organizational and managerial, intended for the organization of supply, production, transport and marketing;
informational, allowing the use of rational informational flows;
social, used to improve working conditions, health, education, culture.
Stages of Innovation:
There are a huge number of approaches to the formation and determination of stages of innovation. In various scientific literature one can find completely different types and classifications, for example, J. Hage and M. Aiken divided innovations into 4 components of the so-called stages:
In turn, S. Myers and D. Margis put forward their idea to consider the stages of innovation as a structure of 5 positions:
Understanding of the problem;
The process of finding a solution to a problem;
Implementation and use.
The most complete picture of the stages of innovation is made up of the following parts:
Basic research (new scientific knowledge, patterns, to establish new connections between phenomena, FIs are divided into search and theoretical);
Applied research (they are associated with the risk of negative results);
In conclusion, it must be said that correctly formed stages of innovation can increase the efficiency of the task, and also help to avoid possible errors and unnecessary costs. Thanks to the strict adherence to the selected stages of innovation, the company can accurately track at what exactly stage the problems arise, and also find out what exactly they are associated with.